Did Improvements in Household Technology Cause the Baby Boom? Evidence from Electrification, Appliance Diffusion, and the Amish
Martha J. Bailey
William J. Collins
American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics
no. 2, April 2011
We examine the hypothesis that advances in household technology caused the US baby boom, and we find no support for this claim. Advances in household technology occurred before the baby boom, while fertility declined. From 1940 to 1960, levels/changes in county-level appliance ownership and electrification negatively predict
levels/changes in fertility rates. Exposure to electricity in early adulthood and children-ever-born are negatively correlated for the relevant cohorts. The Amish, who used modern technologies much less than other US households, experienced a coincident baby boom. This evidence can be reconciled with economic theory if other home-produced goods are substitutes with children. (JEL D12, J13, N32, N92, O33)
Bailey, Martha J., and William J. Collins.
"Did Improvements in Household Technology Cause the Baby Boom? Evidence from Electrification, Appliance Diffusion, and the Amish."
American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics,
Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis
Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
Economic History: Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy: U.S.; Canada: 1913-
Regional and Urban History: U.S.; Canada: 1913-
Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes